Thursday, 7 April 2022

Sizes & Shapes of your NEW burs!

 On any jeweller, or Diamond Setting bench, there could be as many as 12 types of burs. These burs are so familiar with many of our tradespeople, I found a listing of styles and the bur sizes that they come in. 

 This list is very interesting and much needed, when you are ordering a new burs. I have 6, of the 13 being shown, these names are as follows:  1) Krause,  2) Stone Setting,  3) Twist Drills,  4) Square-Edge Wheel,  5) Taper Cross Cut,  6) Cylinder Plain,  7) Cylinder Cross Cut,  8) Cup (77B), 9) (HSS) Hart Shape, 10) Inverted Cone, 11) Cone,  12) Bud,  13) Round.   

   Instead of writing out reams of notes of the sizes that you will be needing "this chart is just what the doctor ordered!!". What you have here is the bur and what size each come in. (Sometimes these sizes might change). BTW, those "black dots" show you what each size that bur comes in.

  I saw this chart just laying on my tool-suppliers' counter, I just grabbed it, not knowing when I'd be using it. Well it looks like I'm using it now, aren't you glad that I did! 😊

 Take a photo of this chart & print it, keep it safe for your future buying trips! 

 All of this writing is for YOU and it's exactly why I'm writing this interesting information in this blog. (Is there anyone else supplying such information as this, all for FREE?)
If you have any questions, don't hesitate in writing to me. "gerrylewy18(at)"


Tuesday, 5 April 2022

"Additional tools for your "Gem-Setting Bench"!

 Some time ago, I wrote an essay on some very 'Important Notes on Your Diamond Setting Bench." It was noted recently that I should be writing an additional list of notes. 

Here is an "expanded list" for you!

1) How to pick up a (small) diamond from your bench?

Answer: First of all "DO NOT USE A PAIR OF TWEEZERS", if you do this, THAT STONE WILL FLY  LIKE "FEDEX" or even "UPS(at no charge). I've seen this happen many times. 
Why should you not do this? It's when you are picking up a .005 point diamond or another gemstone. I will use a piece of wax, (mixed with 50% wax & charcoal), as seen below. It will make your (sticky) wax much less sticky when you are using beeswax and a charcoal-based mixture compound.

  1. Why must you (always) lubricate your burs?

Answer: IF YOU DON'T lubricate your burs, after a very short time, they will literally burn because of overheating as it's rotating at the higher (in excess of 3,600 rounds per minute) speeds. Please use a semi-thick viscosity oil. I use this great lubricating oil named, "3-IN-1", it just never evaporates. As shown, I now use little "make-up" containers as they come with a lid.


 Shown below are my "Collection of  Burs", these are as follows:

1). Bud-shaped 2). Round, 3). Mini-77B (Cup-Shaped) bur, and other assorted sizes and shapes. These do come 'slightly oiled', but please don't rely upon this (light oiled) as permanent, but this is just enough to prevent any allowing of rust to occur while being stored.

 Here are a very special selection of burs, on the left are a variety of "Twist Drills", these are used ONLY for drilling holes. In the center are variety of larger set of round burs and on the right are a very small group of Round burs.
 Why and I showing these to you? All of them are "lightly oiled" and using this to prevent any rust that might easily start, during "shipping and storage". 

3) Which is your 'best' eye-loupe to use, When, Where, and lastly Why?

Answer? I use only a 10x power loupe. A 15x power lens is still too strong for your eyes. I knew of a saying that I learned 6 decades ago; "Aberration; is a defect in the lens". This will definitely occur if the lens is not "parallax corrected".

 This means that there is 'fuzzy viewing' at the edges of the glass. I tried to view jewellery when a '15power lens' is used. In my estimation, just stay with your 10 power lens, this way you won't have any sort of eye-focusing problems.

 In my recent experience, please shy away from the 15x power strength, after a short time, you  will encounter a ruining of your eyes. How will this happen? Your eyes will start to 'squint' uncontrollably. This is a very dangerous situation, trust me on this malady!!!

 In this photograph, I'm showing you my many assorted 'head-gears', that I use all of the time.      
The "Opti-Visor" are of a 2.5 <=> 3.0 magnification, this is a combination of another eye-glass "lift-up" style @ 1.75 power. Altogether, you could be having a total viewing power of nearly  5x power in total magnification. 

 Many of these 'coupled lenses' are my own invention. I don't mess around wasting & buying
unnecessary lenses, I know exactly what I need & I create it with no hesitation.  The lenses that I'm referring to, are the 2 sets of glasses resting on my Opti-Visor, that actually 'lift up' when not needed.   

BTW, these "special glasses" are ONLY 65 years old. These were my Dad's eye-frames and I changed them to suit my own Diamond Setting purposes. I believe that these "lifting-type lenses" were approximate with a 1.75x power.

 This great loupe is a precision created loupe that is accurate from the 'center to the edge', with no blurring towards the edges. The loupe as seen below, is my specialty lens. In fact, my diamond dealer had this made for himself than he gave it to me to keep. It's just so fantastic to use, I'd be now so lost without it. Honestly!
 This is how it looks through the lens, it's so powerful, even at 10x power. BTW, this is only a cubic zirconia, obviously this isn't a diamond, it's so gentle to view!!!

4) Which ring clamps should you use, When, Where, and (again) lastly Why?

 This inside ring clamp is really great when you have an Eternity ring where stones are being set all around the ring.
All you do is to use a hexagon key (being shown here) and the ring is then turned a few degrees and it's held in place, ever so securely.
In a regular side-holding clamp, (here it is shown laying down) all you have is side-clamping. But the "inside clamp" literally holds the ring from the inside, there are various plastic inserts being used for your particular size of ring.

Here is a "Mini, Pin-Vice" that is another option for you. These are so-o useful for setting stones as they are used on disks, or flat plates.

5) Which Polishing Papers must you use, When, Where, and (of course) Why?

Answer? In this photograph you have at last count an estimated 19 sticks for sharpening gravers. These sticks have almost every "Emery & Polishing" paper that any Diamond Setter needs, or uses. These days, many of 'us' use polishing wheels, I don't condone any of those methods.

I have here a range of papers for every need to make my gravers sharp to use again.  

Here are the ones I need: #240, #400, #600, #800, #1,000, #1,200. But how do I need to have them in the 'in-between' numbers?

 Do you see that "Primary; Soft Graphite, Drafting Pencil? When I rub the graphite into the pores of the papers, I'm now making that paper into a more highly polished kind of paper.

 For example; the #240 with the rubbing, will then make it nearly #360, good idea? Or how about a #1,200 paper plus the 'rubbing', then this paper will become almost a #1,500 paper. Is this a definite WOW. 

You might not find any 'in-between' papers while doing your stone-setting on a weekend.

 You can now create your own much needed papers and then not be worried that you can't find those papers that you so definitely need. 

 Please use any method that you are familiar with. I prefer to use a "Paint Stirrer" stick that I pick up from "Home Hardware" here in Toronto, Canada. I don't buy them, as they give them away, if I needed to use any of their paints. Good promotion! 

 I keep an extra supply of gravers, why so many? So glad that you asked me. This is because you just never know when you or I need a particular graver that is urgently needed. Then you don't have that one during that important setting job.

 I've run into this so many darned times, that I've forgotten how many. I've decided to have many more polishing papers & gravers, this will make a very happy Diamond Setter. 

BTW, mostly all of these graver handles are colour coded, as each coloured handle is for a particular purpose. For the "Wine Coloured handle" at the bottom right, is only used for a Flat graver. Nothing else!  I call this "Selection of Gravers, by the Colours of the Handle". 

The handle with the little "dots" will be used for Pave' setting 

6) How to "Select" your NEW Purchased Diamond, and what to look for?

Answer? This is somewhat of a 'convoluted answer', with so many facts. Here I go!

 So much research has to be done on what kind of diamond to buy and examine.

What size fits your budget? The closer you get to the 1.00 carat size, the more expensive it can be. Even a .95 point size with a difference of .05 points can mean hundreds of dollars more that will come out of your pocket.

 Can you see the difference of 0.05 points (1.00 - .95 points) from a distance of 3-4 feet away? Now be truthful, can you see what I mean?? 

If you are now putting that same diamond into a 4-prong/claw setting those few points will not make any difference. BUT, if you put the that same stone in a FULL BEZEL there is no way you can see any point in arguing with a .98 point stone to a .93 points. the metal will for sure cover up the difference in size.

Taf Schaefer do you see what I mean? There is so much to think about when deciding the size, the quality, the cut, the symmetry and finally, versus the dollar costs. Your Full Bezel setting covers up so much of the stone. I'd say you are losing about 15% of the size of the stone, just in metal. But what you told me about your client, SAFETY is another point to decide what to buy.

 I told you privately my answer and you agreed with me. "Safety & Security, is #1".

 Only your pocket-book will see the difference, not your eyes! Can you see what a

VS,2 and an SI,1 can be? How about the colour of  E &F, or how about G &H, all of these determine what the final price will be? Think of your pocket, not necessarily your diamond facts. I'd go to the lower grade as your eyes will not see the differences. I'm being so truthful and honest here.

There is another determining factor, It's called "Triple, XXX's" what the blazes are these x's used for? Excellent Cut, Excellent Colour, Excellent Symmetry. All of these will determine how much the diamond will sparkle, (not necessarily the cost). BTW, when you are appraising your stone, the XXX's will give you a better $$ valuation. I only hope that you, Taf and everyone reading this essay on this subject find this so very interesting.

Now lets keep on with this essay, there is still so much more to write....OUCH! 

My lady-friend, TAF, again asked me another question; "What about "Diamond Security" for those young ladies who in these days enjoy fast sports". These could be skiing, swimming, jogging, and of course those water-sports. What kind of rings would be great? As I am only a Diamond Setter, I see many times these delicate diamonds coming loose, and G-D forbid, getting lost.

My suggestion is to build a strong ring AROUND THAT EXPENSIVE $10,000 - $15,000.00

DIAMOND. What kind of FRAME, or setting will be best? As TAF Shaefer, told me, that she prefers a "Full Bezel", or a "Tube-Settingand avoiding the delicate 4-claw setting. In this case, I MUST 100% totally agree with her. 

7) How do you brush off any loose metal filings from your gem-setting work?

Answer? I'd use anything; toothbrushes, "soft, make-up brushes", paint brushes (third from the left). Just as long as these work. But PLEASE don't use anything that is too coarse. You must always experiment for yourself, with which "soft brush" is best for you? Your cleaning brush SHOULD DO ONLY ONE THING and that is to gently remove those metal particles.

The remaining brushes that are seen in this essay are "good, to great". The brushes on the "far-right" and the "far-left" are like steel brushes, they are just too hard on your delicate pieces of jewellery. The toothbrushes that YOU, or I use, are the BEST for 'us' to use. They are cheap as I will give them three thumbs up!

The 3/4" inch in width, "Paintbrush", that is the third from the left, IS my favourite. You can just barely see that it is slightly worn down by its constant use from cleaning my jewellery. It's fantastic on diamond-set pieces of jewellery with diamonds. IT CLEANS, (AND) IT DOESN'T LOOSEN ANY OF MY DIAMONDS. After all, isn't that what we are looking for?

That large "Make-Up" brush (second from the far right) is too large and it doesn't clean those little diamond setting spots. Again, sticking to these toothbrushes is my "WINNER" in my 'cleaning tools'.

Where can you buy these additional brushes? Don't laugh, try going to your "drugstore", local "Dollar Store", even your local "hardware store". This is where I do my "additional, jewellery tool shopping".

 I avoid those jewellery buying stores, I can't divulge those names because it isn't ethical.

I just inserted an 'Old-Time' men's shaving brush, but this brush is basically used for cleaning off the dust in my working areas & bench. This wasn't meant for touching up the dirt on the jewellery tips, the size of it is humongous and not meant for delicate cleaning.

8) How to Put Gold around a Diamond? An "Orchid-Ganoksin" lady-friend wanted me to help her, and this was her question. I answered it in a previously written answer. I'll do my very best in helping her.

Answer?  I would use a basic "C.A.D." method, or a "Computer Aided Designing".

 In using this technique, you can create just about any design you wish to create.

9) Which "Pumice Wheel" should you be using?  When, Where, Grit & Why? 


     The preferential grit for these basic Pumice wheels are a #180 grit just nothing else is required. The highest polishing grit for the actual cleaning that is used AFTER the #180 grit, is #1,000 grit. The colour of these "highest grit" wheel is of a PINK colour.

There is a #240 grit, I never use this grit, why so? I have enough with these two grades, I don't need any more to mess with, I'd say that this is purely "over-kill".

 BUT, what is the colour of the #180? It is a dark blue colour as in this grade of colour. This other blue is this lighter colour. This lighter blue just never cuts to my liking, I never use the lighter range of colour. Colourings don't make the difference, but it helps in the task of buying wheels. 

 It's the "colour" that makes buying an easier task that differentiates one grade to the other. The darker blue is a more aggressive pumice wheel, BUT why? It cuts sufficiently to remove mostly all of the 'cuts & grooves' from any file in my "SNAP-ON, Emery Wheel" as shown in my lower photograph.

 These "darker colours" are shown below in these group of wheels. I'm trying to do the best in explaining the differences of grades as the best as I can, in this essay.

 These PINK WHEELS of the #1,000 GRIT, ever so "lightly polish & smooth" the metal surface, at the same time. It's when there are so many delicate areas to polish, these wheels assist the jeweller ever so greatly. The very large cloth wheels can permanently damage the patterns in a moments notice. A "Split Lap" is great, but it just can't get into those "Minute, Grooves & Crevices". ONLY YOUR PUMICE WHEEL OF YOUR  OWN CHOOSING, WILL HELP YOU.

All of these wheels come in a "Tapered" & "Flat" edge surface. These (again) are shown in this photograph. When the wheel is worn down, DON'T THROW THEM AWAY, YOU CAN USE THEM TO REMOVE ANY MARKS remaining from INSIDE the casting process. Is this a great idea for those small, 'often-used' pumice wheels?

10) What Sizes of "Shellac-Sticks" are used & needed? When, Where (and let's not forget the very important) Why! Now leaving one more question unanswered! How are they made? (this will be a very careful process and we are needing very much care).

 These odd-shaped wooden disks can be used for any weird looking items, just as bracelets, or anything that can be used. Then you put that "wooden thing", into your ring clamp. Everything works, just experiment as often as you can.

 This is the 'buying state' of your new shellac. All you need to do is to heat it up with your "Bernzomatic" mini-flame, let it melt unto your wooden disk. BUT YOU MUST AS WELL HEAT this shellac and let it find it's own shape under or around the item that you are going to use.
 This will "Be As A Base" for your item to hold. Then when you are setting your stones, this will give you a good supporting-base for anything that is hollow.

I have another item that I constantly use, it's a pin-vice that is adjustable to any width. I like this just for one reason, it can be hand-held against your bench-pin. Then it's not tied down inside your bench tray. 

This is my favourite little bauble, this is my "Guinness World Record" (duplicate), you can see just how it sits against this clamp. There is no need for any (messy) shellac, then after the Diamond Setting process is finished, it remained clean as the moment it was placed upon the hand-held "mini, pin-vice". 

11)  Why use the popular "Dremel" burs & tools? These well known selection of mini-burs are another source of "jewellery manufacturing" burs. These have a wide assortment of items that many jewellers will find to be a real prize, when needed at a moments notice.

 I used many of these pieces myself & they were real life-savers and I don't always buy the most expensive. BUT I will buy what will be the 'most useful', the 'buying source' will not always fit my criteria.  

 Where are they found? I went to my ultra-large & major hardware store and there they were. Also in this store was an "Bernzomatic" that is used to heat up my flake-shellac for my sticks. Both items are now being shown in this photograph.

 This list of "Essential Setting Burs &Tools" is growing exponential with the tools we all need. On an average diamond setting bench, there could have (without guessing), an estimate of thousands of dollars in tools and burs of all descriptions. 

 Here is my partial arrangement of "High Speed Steel" (aka H.S.S.) burs and other cleaning utensils. These burs are named that the steel is created as a "High Tungsten Steel", not necessary meaning that these should be run at a high rotating speed. 😖

Here is an close view of the "HSS" burs, you can notice just how clean they are, why? These are so darned expensive, I wouldn't want any of them to get rusty and not be working well. When a Diamond Setter is working with any of these, they must always be in 'pristine condition' and  in perfect working order. I take all of the opportunities in keeping them well-oiled. 

Here are a few more collections of my bur & cleaning-utensils. I still have a few more 
'bur-pads' still hiding from your view. I have a total of 9 'Bur-Pads' (similar to these in my inventory).

 Now you have a general idea of how many hundreds of dollars, an average Diamond Setter may have in their bur & setting tool inventory.
 What you are looking in this 'bur essay' could very well be over $1,000.00 or more! 

 But thankfully, these burs CAN last many months, it's because I KEEP THEM VERY WELL LUBRICATED, and so should YOU.

 There are some burs that can cost me $75.00 for a packet of  5 burs. These 8mm. ROUND burs, on the second row from the top, are the most "Expensive 5 burs" in my inventory. (But there is a long story about them, I'm not going to write about them).

This is another collection of my "Dremel' cleaning-type of burs. When a Diamond Setter is finishing his/her gem-setting, the next step is to clean, where these burs come from, is of no consequence to that person, "just as long as the job gets done", do YOU agree with me?

 = = = = = = = = = = 
12) A real FANTASTIC 4x power-magnification microscope with a screen: This is not some expensive jewellery toy, but something every "Diamond Appraiser" or a "Retail Store, Owner" would be absolutely pleased with having on their business desk.

 This screen has a 4x power, "built-in magnification" and it comes with it's own L.E.D. light source.

 Instead of examining any stone that is broken, the client can see for themselves without looking through a hand-held loupe. Both the appraiser, or the store-owner can see for themselves what the stone(s) looks like.

 This is just an amazing 'new on the market' piece of apparatus, this is what it looks like.
I bought this just for my writing of my blog-essays and nothing else! With this essay, it's paid for!

 Each (mini) USB module can hold 213,600 photo's, it can also use video's on that USB. Even a  coin-dealer could gladly use one of these newer tools.

  I'm showing an English coin named "Sixpence" from the year 1948 A.D. The coin-collector can easily show the client it's finest details. 

This is not something to just look at. Even Diamond Setters can examine their diamonds prior to setting for any sort of breakage, prior to their setting of stones.

 If my client thinks that his diamonds are poor quality, I'll ask him to view them in this screen.
 I could refuse to set his stones, "If I feel that they are of poor quality, I could do this now with this "New Setting Tool". This could be a 100% life-saver, do you agree with me?

 Here is a "broken, Pavillion corner-facet" that would be too difficult to accurately view! But with this scope, everything is now made so very easy. That number "1.3" being shown at (bottom left corner) means it is now showing at 1.3x power magnification.

 No longer do we have to share any 10 power loupe. As shown, #2.2 represents, 2.2x power magnification.

 My favourite, "Tool Supplier" SOLD 5 of these digital & micro-viewers in one afternoon. Why aren't "you" buying one?😇

 Here you can see two watches: The watch on the right, measure 12mm x 16mm's. 

 Each are estimated to be 45 YEARS old, each of them are still working and still very clean inside. This digital-microscope could also be worth the $450.00 CDN; it's so valuable even for watch-makers for record-keeping, this could be a very good idea for them.

 Just as an added bonus, it comes with a video-maker,

The number on the right refers to how many photographs are remaining on the USB-file.

 Finally, this essay is now finished. I've touched upon all kinds of tools that just about every Diamond Setter needs to have at their disposal. Some of them may not always be used, but many times they are there "just in case".....agree with me?

If you have any questions; you may contact me at gerrylewy18 (at)!

 BTW, I really enjoyed writing these many (146) essays. Hoping that G-d gives me many more years in writing these essays for you all.

I'm wishing you all well in these Covid-19 times...Gerry Lewy!

Thursday, 24 March 2022

What is the "Wax to Metal" Shrinkage?

 In honour of  our own "Taf Schaefer, on Ganoksin", who asked me one simple question. "Gerry, What is the percentage of shrinkage when you're casting metals?

 Our own "Taf" mentioned to me that she does a lot glass designing with the "Steuben Glass Company". In fact, she was one of the leaders with that fantastic glass company where I once visited in Upper area of New York State, USA. You can see some of her wonderful sculpturing at "" and to think she is one of 'us' on Ganoksin. We are all honoured, as I am for sure, just go to their website and see many of her beautiful designs. 

 My answer was given to her, in the following email, shortly after I heard of her question, it was a simple 0.6%. But here comes another question.  How do the jewellers arrive with that answer?
 There is some background to this question, if I didn't remember the answer, I went directly to the Google for the basic information, then I'd search further. Here is another answer for her and everyone to use.

There is some history to this question;
 In 1800's, the jewellers in those earlier days used gravity to get the molten wax to into their own metal molds. Thankfully, we don't now use that "gravitational process" anymore to get our wax into those rubber molds.

 First of all, the wax is under pressure and forced into a rubber-mold. The pressure is about 25 P.S.I. (Per Square Inch) and that is sufficient enough to get the molten wax into all of the cavities of the rubber-mold. 

The next query got answered, how do you get the wax removed from the two halves of the rubber mold, without getting the wax broken or destroyed in the removal-process?

 Google mentioned using a basic "Lubricant" that is in having "Talcum-Powder" as a the guide. I knew this for myself after seeing this first-hand, when I was learning my Diamond Setting, some 63 years ago. I took so much for granted then, but not understanding the real reasons. If that jeweller said 6%, I took it for granted that he/she were right. But never ever, questioned them...!!!

 Today, we use a liquid to spray the rubber-mold to extract the warm wax from the rubber. When we get the wax removed WE MUST GET ALL OF THIS WAX CLEAN from any powder.

Some jewellers immerse the 'powder encased wax' into a water-based solution. Why is this so essential? This will give you a spotless clean wax, that is free of any powder, or other substance.   

 When the "weighing process" is initiated, this wax form MUST BE TOTALLY CLEAN of any extra powder-like materials. Not to mention, that every wax pattern MUST be clean of any 'extra' wax residue, this will give you "any not wanted wax" and will also give you any of that metal in your final weights. Your wax should be visually clean!!!

 If I'm repeating myself, that is because this step is so darned important, in this "weighing process".

 You can use any method, just to get any 'remaining wax' totally removed. I use any file of shape, grit and texture. I even bought some of these above shown files from my favourite "Dollar-Store" outlet.

At times, I will use my graver and hand-remove any of the remaining wax, as shown below.

 If you can see a little 'extra' wax, try and remove everything. Those few 0.01 - 0.02 grams can add up to unnecessary $$ out of your pocket.

The "RATIO of 0.6%" is now being started, but how is it found & using what method? 

Let's first state that we use this ratio of  "WEIGHT X HEIGHT X DEPTH". This will easily give you the VOLUME. But what about the 6% and how is that arrived???

Taf Schaefer then asked me for the second question, will a "thick wax-sprue give us any problems", my own answer will be a definite "NO"! If you need any thick sprue, attach that AFTER the "6%" answer has been calculated.

 Now just compare these two measurements, "with & without" that center sprue.  This will be an interesting weight difference, agree? 

The difference (in grams) is enough to give you a totally wrong weight answer. There is a great difference of 0.26 grams, if you multiply those numbers in gold. Good grief, those are dollars flying out of your pocket. Do you really want that to happen?
 BTW, "Taf Schaefer" with everyone, this my answer for you. You can attach those thick sprues after your final $$$ numbers are easily calculated. 

How is that 6% calculated, this is a very detailed answer and so easy to understand!!

Original Metal form to your machine (squeezed) hot rubber created mold there will give you a 2.5 % shrinkage. A "Cold Mold" will not give you any of those shrinking problems.

 BTW, this is a metal model is of a "Ballerina", she was created in England in 1934. This prized model now sits in our home as it was passed down from my "Beloved Parents" ever since.

 You can see just how that there is NO SHRINKAGE HAS TAKEN PLACE.  This cold mold refers to the fact there is no squeezing of any two hot plates for the top and the bottom. This method literally squeezes the two very hot plates and makes the rubber also very hot. Every few minutes, the two plates are squeezed again, each time closer together. At every squeezing action the temperatures are quickly measured...Squeezing again, another temperature check. few more squeezing's, until all of the hot-plates are finally FORCED together.

 Just imagine how much force is being brought together? Now think of the shrinkage percentages, good grief. I couldn't even suggest a simple 2.5%, but that is how those numbers are being created.

 It's so hot, that all of the semi-liquid rubber is forced into all of the crevices and recesses of a cluster ring with it's all kinds of detailing's. As for this "Ballerina" model, such a process is not needed, hence a Cold Mold will easily suffice. Plus there is no hot squeezing is needed or required. NICE?

This shrinkage problem that we're talking about is at a absolute zero...WOW & finally!!! 

 To calculate the difference of answers, I suggest that you use the "trial and error" method.  Comparing one method against the other, you will be pleasantly $$$'s surprised.

ANY wax will shrink from the Rubber mold at 1.0 %

Casting metal from the (Wax) Rubber Mold is at 1.0 %

Cleaning (filing) & Polishing (using the Tripoli & Rouge compounds) is anothe1.0 % +.